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ALFEROV, Zhores, I., 1930 (Vitebsk, Bielorussia, USSR) - Development of semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed and opto-electronic systems; The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000.
See: http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/pti00002.html



BARDEEN, John, 1908 (Madison, Wisconsin, USA)- 1991; Contribution to the understanding of electrical conductivity in semiconductors and metals and co-invention of the transistor; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956 (transistor) and 1972 (superconductors).
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1972/bardeen-bio.html



BASOW, Nikolai, G., 1922 (Voronezh, USSR) - Contribution to the development of semiconductor laser; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964 .
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1964/basov-bio.html



BOHR, Niels,H., 1885 (Copenhagen, Denmark) - 1962; Understanding of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922.
See: http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Bohr_Niels.html



BOLTZMAN, Ludwig, 1844 (Vienna, Austria) –1906; Fundamental contributions to theoretical physics which laid the foundation for the modern semiconductor physics (Maxwell – Boltzman distribution).
See: http://www.shsu.edu/~icc_cmf/bio/boltzman.html



BOWER, Robert, 1936 (Santa Monica, CA, USA)- Invention of field effect device with insulating gate and self-aligned gate ion implanted MOSFET; introduction of ion implantation into integrated circuit manufacturing.
See: http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/18.html



BRATTAIN, Walter, H., 1902 (Amoy, China) – 1987; Discovery of the photo-effect in semiconductors and co-invention of the transistor; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1956/brattain-bio.html



BRIDGMAN, Percy, W., 1882 (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) – 1961; Devising of a method of growing single-crystal semiconductors (Bridgman method); The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1946/bridgman-bio.html



BRILLOUIN, Leon, 1889 (France) – 1969 - Determination of the characteristics of crystal structures, Brillouin Zones.
See: http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/References/Brillouin.html



CZOCHRALSKI, Jan, 1885 (Kcynia, Poland) – 1953; Development of the single-crystal growth method commonly used in the fabrication of silicon wafers; CZ crystals..
See: http://rekt.pol.lublin.pl/~ptwk/art2.htm



DEAL, Bruce, E., 1927 (Lincoln, Nebraska, USA)- Key contributions to the research on the kinetics of thermal oxidation of silicon (Deal-Grove model) as well as surface and interface phenomena in silicon processing.
See: http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/histsci/ssvoral/engelbart/vita-ntb.html



DEBYE, Pietrus , J.W., 1884 (Maastricht, the Netherlands) – 1966; Contribution to the understanding of molecular structure; The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936.
See: http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1936/debye-bio.html



DIRAC, Paul A.M., 1902 (Bristol, England) - Contribution to mathematical and theoretical aspects of quantum mechanics; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1933/dirac-bio.html



EARLY, James., E., 1922 -2004; fundamental contributions to the development of transistor and charge-coupled device (CCD)imagers.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_M._Early



EBERS, Jewell, J., 1921 (Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA)- 1959; Contribution to the fundamental model of bipolar transistor (Ebers-Moll model).
See: http://www.ieee.org/organizations/society/eds/ebers.html



EINSTEIN, Albert, 1879 (Ulm, Germany)- 1955; Groundbreaking contributions to theoretical physics, discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1921/index.html



ESAKI, Leo, 1925 (Osaka, Japan) - Experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1973/esaki-bio.html



FERMI, Enrico, 1901 (Rome, Italy) – 1954; Foundation of the statistics of electron gas as well as statistical model of the atom (“Fermi level”);The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1938/fermi-bio.html



FICK, Adolf, 1829 (Germany) - 1901; Laws of diffusion in solids, 1st and 2nd Fick's law.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Fick



FRENKEL, Jakov, 1894 (Rostov, Russia) - 1952; Explanation of the effect of crystallographic defects on the properties of solids.
See: http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakov_Ilji%C4%8D_Frenkel



GROVE, Andrew, 1936 (Budapest, Hungary) - Pioneering research on silicon processing (including Deal-Grove model of thermaooxidation of silicon), excellent textbook in 1967 ; contribution to the growth of semiconductor industry.
See: http://www.andygrove.com



GUMMEL, Hermann. K. - Contribution to the integral charge control model for bipolar junction transistor and other contributions to physics of semiconductoor devices.
See: http://www-cad.eecs.berkeley.edu/~newton/Presentations/HKGPresent.html



HALL, Edwin, H., 1855 (USA) - 1938; Hall effect, generation of potential difference in semiconductor as a result of interactions between magnetic field and electric current.
See: http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/hall.html



HEISENBERG, Werner, 1901 (Wurzburg, Germany) - 1976; Fundamental contributions to quantum mechanics; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1932/heisenberg-bio.html



HOERNI, Jean, A., 1924 (Switzerland)- 1997; Develpment of planar process and contribution to the development of integrated circuits.
See: http://www.redherring.com/mag/issue42/obituary.html



HOLONYAK, Nick, 1928 (Zeigler, Illinois, USA) - Invention of light emitting semiconductor devices, work on compound semiconductors, heterojunctions.
See: http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/addlbios/holonyak.html



KERN, Werner, 1925 - Development of wafer cleaning technology adopted throughtout semiconductor industry.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_M._Early



KILBY, Jack. S., 1923 (Great Bend, Kansas, USA) - Key contribution to the invention of the integrated circuit; The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000.
See: http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr/jackstclair.shtml



KROEMER, Herbert, 1928 (Weimar, Germany)- Fundamental contribution to thescience and engineering of heterostructures; The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/2000/kroemer-autobio.html



LILIENFELD, Julius E., 1881 (Germany) – 1963; Development of the field effect transistor.
See: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bllilienfeld.htm



MAXWELL, James, C., 1831 (Edinburgh, Scotland) – 1879; Outstanding contributions to the development of mathematical models of the real world physics (Maxwell’s equations).
See: http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Maxwell.html



MOLL, John, 1921 (Wauseon, Ohio, USA) - Contribution to the fundamental model of bipolar transistor (Ebers-Moll model).
See: http://www.hpl.hp.com/news/news_archives/john_moll_cc.html



MOORE, Gordon, E., 1929 (San Francisco, California, USA) - Moore’s Law – the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry regarding growth of digital IC technology.
See: http://www.intel.com/pressroom/kits/bios/moore.htm



NOYCE, Robert, N., 1927 (Burlington, Iowa, USA) – 1990; Pioneering effort in the development of mesa and planar transistor technologies as well as integrated circuit, key contributions to the growth of semiconductor industry.
See: http://www.ruku.com/noyce.html



PAULI, Wolfgang, 1900 (Vienna,Austria) – 1958; Pauli exclusion principle which states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.
See: http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Pauli.html



PFANN, William, G. - Invention (1951) of zone refining process producing purest semiconductor materials.
See: http:www.lucent.com/minds/discoveries/tline50b.html



PLANCK, Max,K., 1858 (Kiel, Germany) - 1947; Advancement of physics by discovery of energy quanta; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1918/index.html



POISSON, Simeon, D., 1781 (Pithiviers, France) – 1840; Application of mathematics to electricity and magnetism formulating Poisson’s equation in potential theory.
See: http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Poisson.html



SCHOTTKY, Walter 1886 (Zurich, Switzerland) – 1976 – Discoveries of fundamental effects in semiconductors (e.g. Schottky effect) and development of devices (Schottky diode).
See: http://www.britannica.com/search?query=Schottky%20Walter&ct=



SCHRODINGER, Erwin , 1887 (Vienna,Austria) – 1962; Formulation of the wave equation (Schrodinger’s wave equation); The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1933/schrodinger-bio.html



SHOCKLEY, William, B., 1910 (London, England) - 1989; Several fundamental contributions including work on the energy bands in solids and contribution to the invention of transistor; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1956/shockley-bio.html



TAMM, Igor, E., 1895 (Vladivostok,Russia) – 1971 - Contribution to theoretical solid state physics in particular to the theory of surface states; The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1958/tamm-bio.html



Van der WAALS, Johannes, D., 1837 (Leyden, The Netherlands )- 1923; Conceived general form of the equation of state applicable to all substances; work on the intermolecular forces (Van der Waals forces); The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910.
See: http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1910/index.html



ZENER, Clarence, M.. 1905 (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA)- 1993; American physisist, in 1934 discovered effect of tunneling in semiconductor junctions; p-n junction tunnel diode is called Zener diode.
See: http://www.realmagick.com/clarence-melvin-zener/







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