Semiconductor Glossary, Developed Semi OneSource.
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Term (Index) Definition
wet cleaning  process of contaminants removal from the wafer surface in the liquid-phase; prevailing cleaning method in semiconductor manufacturing; wet cleaning chemistries are selected to form soluble compounds of surface contaminants; often enhanced by megasonic agitation; always followed by deionized water rinse and dry cycle.

Reference: Akrion, Inc.
DHF  dilute HF; SiO2 etching solution of 49% HF in water; typical mixture: 1 part HF : 100 parts H2O.
dry cleaning  process of contaminants removal from the wafer surface in the gas-phase; driven by either conversion of contaminant into volatile compound through chemical reaction, or its "knocking" off the surface via momentum transfer, or lift-off during slight etching of contaminated surface.

Reference: See Semiconductor Notes for more information
APM  Ammonia hydroxide-hydrogen Peroxide-water Mixture; typically 0.25:1:5; same as SC1 and RCA-1; cleaning solution used primarily to remove particles from the surface; also capable of removing surface organics; strong solutions can etch/roughen silicon surface; forms chemical oxide (hydrophylic surface)on Si surface; applied at temperature between 40 oC and 70 oC; typically combined with megasonic agitation.
HPM  hydrochloric acid-hydrogen peroxide-water mixture typically 1:1:5; same as SC2 and RCA2; cleaning solution used primarily to remove metallic contaminants; gradually replaced with alternative recipes such as those involving very weak solutions of HF:HCl in water.
megasonic agitation, megasonic scrubbing  used to enhance particle removal from wafer surface by sonic pressure; megasonic energy at the frequency in 500-1000 kHz range is applied to the liquid (typically APM cleaning solution) in which wafers are immersed; more effective and less potentially damaging to the wafer (reduced cavitation) than ultrasonic agitation; standard feature in the immersion cleaning tools.

Reference: Akrion, Inc.
ozonated water  water with ozone dissolved in it to increase its oxidizing strength; commonly used in semiconductor processing to remove organic contaminants from the wafer surface.
IMEC clean  wet cleaning sequence developed at the Interuniveristy Microelectronics Center in Leuven, Belgium; includes three cleaning steps: SOM+APM+dHF/HCl with DI water rinses in between and Marangoni drying at the end.

Reference: IMEC
supercritical fluid  state of matter into which gases and liquids are converted at elevated temperature and high pressure; supercritical fluid has characteristic of both liquid and a gas; it lacks any surface tension while interacting with solid surfaces, and hence, can readily penetrates high aspect ratio geometrical features; it has very low viscosity and, like a liquid, easily dissolves large quantities of other chemicals; in semiconductor processing used in surface cleaning when penetration of very tight geometrical features is required; typically supercritical CO2 is used as carrier of cleaning agents.
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