Semiconductor Glossary, Developed Semi OneSource.
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Term (Index) Definition
silicon, Si  element from the IVth group of periodic table, the most common semiconductor, atomic number 14, energy gap Eg = 1.12 eV - indirect; crystal structure - diamond, lattice constant 0.543 nm, atomic concentration 5x1022 atoms/cm-3, index of refraction 3.42, density 2.33 g/cm3, dielectric constant 11.7, intrinsic carrier concentration 1.02 x 1010 cm-3, mobility of electrons and holes at 300 K: 1450 and 500 cm2/V-s, thermal conductivity 1.31 W/cm-oC, thermal expansion coefficient 2.6 x 10-6 1/oC, melting point 1414 oC; native oxide SiO2 is a very high quality insulator; Si features excellent mechanical properties (MEMS applications); single crystal Si can be processed into wafers up to 300 mm in diameter.
amorphous Si, a-Si  non-crystalline thin-film silicon; features no long-range crystallographic order; inferior electrical characteristics as compared to single-crystal and poly Si but cheaper and easier to manufacture; used primarily to fabricate solar cells.
polycrystalline silicon, poly Si  crystalline Si in which long range order is maintained only within limited grains; heavily doped poly Si is commonly used as a gate contact in silicon MOS and CMOS devices; in saome cases also as an interconnect material in
silicon dioxide, SiO2  silica; native oxide of silicon and at the same time an excellent insulator; the most common insulator in semiconductor device technology, particularly in silicon MOS/CMOS where it is use as a gate oxide; high quality films are obtained by thermal oxidation of silicon; thermal SiO2 forms smooth, low-defect interface with Si; can be also readily deposited by CVD; SiO2 performs various functions in silicon device technology which to large degree depends on outstanding characteristics of; also used in non-Si devices; Key parameters: energy gap Eg ~ 8eV, dielectric strength 5-15 x 106 V/cm depending on thickness, dielectric constant k = 3.9, density 2.3 g/cm3, refractive index n =1.46, melting point ~ 1700 oC; prone to contamination with alkali ions and sensitive to high energy radiation; in semiconductor technology used in the form amorphous thin films; single crystal SiO2 is known as quartz.
silicon germanium, SiGe  an alloy featuring energy gap narrower than Si and wider than Ge; energy gap varies as a function of Ge concentration in SiGe; features increased electron mobility as compared to Si; epitaxially deposited to form base in HBT (Si emitter); significant improvement of HBT's characteristics over all-Si bipolar transistor; in CMOS technology SiGe is used to form strained Si layer to act as a channel.

Reference: SemiOneSource,Notes
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