Semiconductor Glossary, Developed Semi OneSource.
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Term (Index) Definition
plasma  ionized gas, specifically a self-contained part of the electrical discharge in gases featuring equal concentration of ions and electrons; plasma contains electrically active species, but as a whole is electrically neutral; ions can be extracted from plasma to play variety of important functions in semiconductor processing.
HDP, High Density Plasma  high density plasma - plasma featuring high concentration of free electrons, and hence, high concentration of ions.
plasma etching  dry etching in which semiconductor wafer is immersed in plasma containing etching species; chemical etching reaction is taking place at the same rate in any direction, i.e. etching is isotropic; can be very selective; used in those applications in which directionality (anisotropy) of etching in not required, e.g. in resist stripping.
Term (Index) Definition
afterglow plasma  terms refers to the configuration of the plasma tool; same as remote plasma and downstream plasma.
remote plasma, downstream plasma  terms describing plasma processing mode in which wafer is located away from plasma, and hence, is not directly exposed to plasma; desired reactions (e.g. etching) are implemented by extracting ionized species from plasma and directing them toward the wafer; remote plasma process results in less surface damage than standard process as plasma generated ions are energetically relaxed arriving at the surface of the wafer.
downstream plasma  remote plasma
Term (Index) Definition
direct plasma  plasma process in which wafer is directly exposed to plasma and its products.
remote plasma, downstream plasma  terms describing plasma processing mode in which wafer is located away from plasma, and hence, is not directly exposed to plasma; desired reactions (e.g. etching) are implemented by extracting ionized species from plasma and directing them toward the wafer; remote plasma process results in less surface damage than standard process as plasma generated ions are energetically relaxed arriving at the surface of the wafer.
Term (Index) Definition
downstream plasma  remote plasma
remote plasma, downstream plasma  terms describing plasma processing mode in which wafer is located away from plasma, and hence, is not directly exposed to plasma; desired reactions (e.g. etching) are implemented by extracting ionized species from plasma and directing them toward the wafer; remote plasma process results in less surface damage than standard process as plasma generated ions are energetically relaxed arriving at the surface of the wafer.
Term (Index) Definition
ECR plasma  high density plasma generated using Electron Cyclotron Resonance; used primarily in etching applications; ECR plasma allows efficient etching with limited surface damage.
Term (Index) Definition
HDP, High Density Plasma  high density plasma - plasma featuring high concentration of free electrons, and hence, high concentration of ions.
ECR plasma  high density plasma generated using Electron Cyclotron Resonance; used primarily in etching applications; ECR plasma allows efficient etching with limited surface damage.
helicon plasma  high density plasma generated using helicon antennas.
ICP  Inductively Coupled Plasma; high density plasma used in semiconductor processing; etching in particular.
Term (Index) Definition
helicon plasma  high density plasma generated using helicon antennas.
Term (Index) Definition
magnetically confined plasma  plasma in which magnetic field is used to confine electrons in the plasma and by doing so to increase ionization efficiency.
HDP, High Density Plasma  high density plasma - plasma featuring high concentration of free electrons, and hence, high concentration of ions.
Term (Index) Definition
microwave plasma, MW plasma  plasma generated using microwave frequency signal; typically 2.45 GHz; generates denser plasma than RF (13.56 MHz) signal.
RF  Radio Frequency; common frequency in RF range used in semiconductor process equipment (plasma generators)is 13.6 MHz.
Term (Index) Definition
plasma anodization  oxidation of the surface of conductive solid in an oxygen plasma.
Term (Index) Definition
plasma ashing  removal of organic materials (e.g. photresist) by oxidation using plasma generated oxidizing species.
resist ashing  process of resist removal in strongly oxidizing gaseous atmosphere.
resist stripping  resist removal; process in which resist is removed from the surface when its is not needed any longer, i.e. after completion of etching operation, or ion implantation; can be greatly hampered by changes in the chemical composition of the resist occurring during processing, e.g. during ion implantation; carried out using either wet or dry (ashing) strongly oxidizing chemistries; can be greatly hampered by changes in chemical composition of the resist occuring during processing, e.g. during ion implantation.
stripping  process of material removal from the wafer surface; typically implies that removal is not carried out for the pattering purpose, e.g. resist stripping in which case entire resist is removed following lithography and etching.
Term (Index) Definition
Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition, PECVD  process of chemical vapor deposition in which species to be deposited are generated in plasma; as a result, deposition using the same source gases is taking place at lower wafer temperature then in conventional CVD which requires high temperature to break bonds and to release desired species from input gases; somewhat lower film quality than in the case of pure thermal Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD).
Atmospheric Pressure CVD, APCVD  process of chemical vapor deposition carried out at atmospheric pressure; typically results in the inferior film quality and conformality of coating as compared to Low Pressure CVD (LPCVD).
Term (Index) Definition
plasma etching  dry etching in which semiconductor wafer is immersed in plasma containing etching species; chemical etching reaction is taking place at the same rate in any direction, i.e. etching is isotropic; can be very selective; used in those applications in which directionality (anisotropy) of etching in not required, e.g. in resist stripping.
dry etching  etching process carried out in the gas-phase; can be either purely chemical (plasma etching), purely physical (ion milling) or combination of both (Reactive Ion Etching, RIE).
etching, etch  subtractive process in the course of which a solid is either dissolved in liquid chemicals (wet etching) or converted into gaseous compound (dry etching); one among key processes in semiconductor manufacturing.
Reactive Ion Etching, RIE  variation of plasma etching in which during etching semiconductor wafer is placed on the RF powered electrode; wafer takes on potential which accelerates etching species extracted from plasma toward the etched surface; chemical etching reaction is preferentially taking place in the direction normal to the surface, i.e. etching is more anisotropic than in plasma etching but is less selective; leaves etched surface damaged; the most common etching mode in semiconductor manufacturing.
plasma  ionized gas, specifically a self-contained part of the electrical discharge in gases featuring equal concentration of ions and electrons; plasma contains electrically active species, but as a whole is electrically neutral; ions can be extracted from plasma to play variety of important functions in semiconductor processing.
Term (Index) Definition
Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation, PIII  very shallow implantation taking place when the wafer is "immersed" in plasma containing dopant ions; ions are not accelerated toward the substrate, and hence, penetration depth is very shallow; can be used to form ultra-shallow junctions.
doping  introduction of dopant into semiconductor for the purpose of altering its electrical properties; allows control of resistivity/conductivity of semiconductor by several orders of magnitude; also used to convert p-type material into n-type material and vice versa.
ion implantation  ions accelerated toward solid surface penetrate solid up to certain depth (see "projected range") determined by ion energy; used to introduce dopants, to form buried layers and to modify solid surfaces; concentration of implanted dopant atoms depends on ion dose; i.i. is the most common technique of dopant introduction in advanced semiconductor manufacturing.

Reference: See ion implantation animation
plasma  ionized gas, specifically a self-contained part of the electrical discharge in gases featuring equal concentration of ions and electrons; plasma contains electrically active species, but as a whole is electrically neutral; ions can be extracted from plasma to play variety of important functions in semiconductor processing.
Term (Index) Definition
Radio Frequency, RF, plasma  plasma generated at 13.6 MHz.
RF  Radio Frequency; common frequency in RF range used in semiconductor process equipment (plasma generators)is 13.6 MHz.
plasma  ionized gas, specifically a self-contained part of the electrical discharge in gases featuring equal concentration of ions and electrons; plasma contains electrically active species, but as a whole is electrically neutral; ions can be extracted from plasma to play variety of important functions in semiconductor processing.
Term (Index) Definition
remote plasma, downstream plasma  terms describing plasma processing mode in which wafer is located away from plasma, and hence, is not directly exposed to plasma; desired reactions (e.g. etching) are implemented by extracting ionized species from plasma and directing them toward the wafer; remote plasma process results in less surface damage than standard process as plasma generated ions are energetically relaxed arriving at the surface of the wafer.
microwave plasma, MW plasma  plasma generated using microwave frequency signal; typically 2.45 GHz; generates denser plasma than RF (13.56 MHz) signal.
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