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Term (Index) Definition
photolithography, optical lithography  pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing; using extremely short wavelength UV (extreme UV; wavelenghts below 200 nm), projection printing (steppers), phase shift masks, and adequate resist technology photolithography is capable of resolution below 100 nm.
electron beam (e-beam) lithography, EBL  lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist; no mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam; pattern transfer resolution below 100 nm; resolution is limited by the proximity effect; EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography.
lithography  process used to transfer pattern from the mask/reticle to the layer of resist deposited on the surface of the wafer; kind of lithography depends on the wavelength of radiation used to expose resist: photolithography (or optical lithography) uses UV radiation, X-ray lithography uses X-ray, e-beam lithography uses electron bean, ion beam lithography uses ion beam.
photomask  mask used in photolithography to block resist exposure to UV radiation in selected areas; consists of chrome opaque areas supported by high quality quartz plate transparent to UV radiation.
stepper  resist exposure tool commonly used in photolithograhy; works using projection printing; in contrast to full-field exposure tools stepper exposes through the remotely located reticle only part of the wafer and repeats the process ("step-and-repeat") as many time as needed to expose entire wafer.
X-ray lithography  lithography method using X-ray to expose the resist; due to shorter wavelength of X-ray radiation (0.4 - 4 nm)XRL allows higher resolution than photolithography which uses longer wavelength UV irradiation; XRL requires special mask and resists sensitive to X-rays.
enhancement techniques  term typically refers to techniques employed to extend use of photolithography into sub-100 nm regime; e.g., phase-shift masks, immersion photolithography, new photoresist formulations, etc.
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