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Term (Index) Definition
p-n junction  p-type and n-type semiconductors are brought to contact in order to create a potential barrier; height of the potential barrier is controlled by the voltage applied between p- and n-type regions; in homojunctions p- and n-type regions are formed in the same semiconductor typically by locally changing its doping from p to n, or vice versa; in heterojunctions p- and n-type regions are made out of different semicodnuctors.
potential barrier  increased potential at the junction between two materials featuring different work function; e.g. p-type and n-type semiconductor (p-n junction) or metal-semiconductor contact (Schottky diode); there is an electric field present in the barrier region; the width of the potential barrier depends on the semiconductor doping; the height of potential barrier changes with applied bias voltage (reverse bias - high potential barrier, forward bias - low potential barrier) which makes junction to display diode-like current-voltage characteristics.
Term (Index) Definition
p-n junction isolation  isolation scheme used in bipolar ICs; n-type "island" in which n-p-n transistor is formed is surrounded by p-type material; reverse biased p-n junction formed provides isolation.
LOCOS  Local Oxidation of Silicon; isolation scheme commonly used in MOS/CMOS silicon technology; thick (in the range of 500 nm) pad of thermally grown SiO2 separates adjacent devices (e.g. PMOS and NMOS transistor in CMOS structure); local oxidation is accomplished by using silicon nitride, Si3N4, to prevent oxidation of Si in selected areas, hence, "local" oxidation; prior to SiO2 pad formation silicon in between Si3N4 covered regions is implanted to form "channel stop"; Si3N4 mask is etched off following thermal oxidation and MOSFETs are ten formed in the open spaces.
STI  Shallow Trench Isolation.
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