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Term (Index) Definition
lithography  process used to transfer pattern from the mask/reticle to the layer of resist deposited on the surface of the wafer; kind of lithography depends on the wavelength of radiation used to expose resist: photolithography (or optical lithography) uses UV radiation, X-ray lithography uses X-ray, e-beam lithography uses electron bean, ion beam lithography uses ion beam.
electron beam (e-beam) lithography, EBL  lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist; no mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam; pattern transfer resolution below 100 nm; resolution is limited by the proximity effect; EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography.
photolithography, optical lithography  pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing; using extremely short wavelength UV (extreme UV; wavelenghts below 200 nm), projection printing (steppers), phase shift masks, and adequate resist technology photolithography is capable of resolution below 100 nm.
resist  material sensitive to irradiation i.e. changes its chemical properties when irradiated; in the form of thin film used as a pattern transfer layer in lithographic processes in semiconductor manufacturing.
X-ray lithography  lithography method using X-ray to expose the resist; due to shorter wavelength of X-ray radiation (0.4 - 4 nm)XRL allows higher resolution than photolithography which uses longer wavelength UV irradiation; XRL requires special mask and resists sensitive to X-rays.
Term (Index) Definition
electron beam (e-beam) lithography, EBL  lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist; no mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam; pattern transfer resolution below 100 nm; resolution is limited by the proximity effect; EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography.
lithography  process used to transfer pattern from the mask/reticle to the layer of resist deposited on the surface of the wafer; kind of lithography depends on the wavelength of radiation used to expose resist: photolithography (or optical lithography) uses UV radiation, X-ray lithography uses X-ray, e-beam lithography uses electron bean, ion beam lithography uses ion beam.
photolithography, optical lithography  pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing; using extremely short wavelength UV (extreme UV; wavelenghts below 200 nm), projection printing (steppers), phase shift masks, and adequate resist technology photolithography is capable of resolution below 100 nm.
proximity effect  deleterious effect in e-beam lithography; scattering of electrons in irradiated resist; p.e. is responsible for the size of the exposed resist area being larger than the diameter of the incident electron beam; limits resolution of e-beam lithography.
raster scan  scanning mode in which beam is moving back and forth over the entire substrate; beam is turned on over designated area and then turned off until it will arrive at the next designated area.
variable shape beam  scanning mode in e-beam lithography in which shape of the beam is changing depending on the geometry of exposed area.
vector scan  scanning mode in which beam is scanning selected areas only; after scanning of selected area is completed beam is turned off and moved to another area to be scanned.
X-ray lithography  lithography method using X-ray to expose the resist; due to shorter wavelength of X-ray radiation (0.4 - 4 nm)XRL allows higher resolution than photolithography which uses longer wavelength UV irradiation; XRL requires special mask and resists sensitive to X-rays.
Term (Index) Definition
Electron Projection Lithography, EPL  modification of e-beam lithography in the direction of a incresed process throughput; elimination of time consuming beam scanning.
electron beam (e-beam) lithography, EBL  lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist; no mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam; pattern transfer resolution below 100 nm; resolution is limited by the proximity effect; EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography.
Term (Index) Definition
g - line lithography  photolithography using 436 nm wavelength UV radiation for exposure; (high-intensity line at 436 nm in the spectrum of UV lamp is referred to as "g-line").
ArF excimer laser  193 nm wavelength excimer laser used in photolithography; with various resolution enhancement techniques in place, suitable for exposing below 100 nm geometries.
i - line lithography  photolithography using 365 nm wavelength UV radiation for exposure; (high-intensity line at 436 nm in the spectrum of UV lamp is referred to as "i-line").
KrF excimer laser  248 nm wavelength excimer laser used in photolithography; suitable for exposing 180 nm geometries.
Term (Index) Definition
i - line lithography  photolithography using 365 nm wavelength UV radiation for exposure; (high-intensity line at 436 nm in the spectrum of UV lamp is referred to as "i-line").
g - line lithography  photolithography using 436 nm wavelength UV radiation for exposure; (high-intensity line at 436 nm in the spectrum of UV lamp is referred to as "g-line").
Term (Index) Definition
immersion lithography  photolithography techniques in which space between the final projection lens and the wafer in the exposure tool is filled with water rather than air; use of medium featuring higher refractive index n ( n=1 for air while n=1.44 for water) increases numerical aperture (NA) of the optical lithography tool, and hence, increases resolution of the pattern transfer process.

Reference: See Semiconductor Notes for more information
numerical aperture, NA  parameter defining geometry of the objective lens used in projection printing in photolithography; determines lens' ability to collect light diffracted from a mask/reticle; attempts are continuously made to keep NA as high as possible (see immersion lithography for instance).
refractive index, n  important material parameter; unitless; defined as a ratio of speed of light in free space over speed of light in the medium; describes optical characteristics of a medium (e.g. of a given solid); e.g. for Si n=3.42, GaAs n=3.3 and SiO2 n=1.46.
Term (Index) Definition
immersion lithography 193i,  193 nm immersion lithography, i.e. immersion lithography using 193 nm exposure wavelength.
immersion lithography  photolithography techniques in which space between the final projection lens and the wafer in the exposure tool is filled with water rather than air; use of medium featuring higher refractive index n ( n=1 for air while n=1.44 for water) increases numerical aperture (NA) of the optical lithography tool, and hence, increases resolution of the pattern transfer process.

Reference: See Semiconductor Notes for more information
Term (Index) Definition
ion beam lithography, IBL  lithography technique in which resist is exposed by accelerated ions; due to the limited scattering of ions in the resist IBL may offer higher resolution than e-beam lithography.
Term (Index) Definition
Ion Projection Lithography, IPL  modification of ion-beam lithography in the direction of increased process throughput; elimination of time consumimg scanning.
ion beam lithography, IBL  lithography technique in which resist is exposed by accelerated ions; due to the limited scattering of ions in the resist IBL may offer higher resolution than e-beam lithography.
Term (Index) Definition
lithography, computational.  uses numerical simulation techniques such as Resolution Enhancement Technology (RET)and Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) to increase resolution of photolithography; compensates for distortion by modelling light as it passes through the mask.
Term (Index) Definition
lithography, dry,  conventional "non-immersion" lithography
immersion lithography  photolithography techniques in which space between the final projection lens and the wafer in the exposure tool is filled with water rather than air; use of medium featuring higher refractive index n ( n=1 for air while n=1.44 for water) increases numerical aperture (NA) of the optical lithography tool, and hence, increases resolution of the pattern transfer process.

Reference: See Semiconductor Notes for more information
Term (Index) Definition
mask, X-ray lithography  see X-ray mask.
X-ray mask  mask used in X-ray lithography; uses gold as an opaque material; gold pattern (defined using e-beam lithography) is supported by a thin membrane made out of material transparent to X-rays of given wavelength, e.g. Si3N4, SiC and others.
Term (Index) Definition
masked lithography  lithographic process in which resist is exposed through the mask which by allowing exposure in certain areas and blocking off exposure in other areas creates desired patter in the layer of resist.
photolithography, optical lithography  pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing; using extremely short wavelength UV (extreme UV; wavelenghts below 200 nm), projection printing (steppers), phase shift masks, and adequate resist technology photolithography is capable of resolution below 100 nm.
photomask  mask used in photolithography to block resist exposure to UV radiation in selected areas; consists of chrome opaque areas supported by high quality quartz plate transparent to UV radiation.
X-ray lithography  lithography method using X-ray to expose the resist; due to shorter wavelength of X-ray radiation (0.4 - 4 nm)XRL allows higher resolution than photolithography which uses longer wavelength UV irradiation; XRL requires special mask and resists sensitive to X-rays.
X-ray mask  mask used in X-ray lithography; uses gold as an opaque material; gold pattern (defined using e-beam lithography) is supported by a thin membrane made out of material transparent to X-rays of given wavelength, e.g. Si3N4, SiC and others.
maskless lithography,  lithographic process in which pattern in the resist is exposed by direct writing with computer driven electron beam rather than by exposure through the mask.
Term (Index) Definition
NGL, Next Generation Lithography  meaning of the term evolves with time following changes in the lithographic techniques.
Term (Index) Definition
optical lithography  see photolithography.
Term (Index) Definition
photolithography, optical lithography  pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing; using extremely short wavelength UV (extreme UV; wavelenghts below 200 nm), projection printing (steppers), phase shift masks, and adequate resist technology photolithography is capable of resolution below 100 nm.
electron beam (e-beam) lithography, EBL  lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist; no mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam; pattern transfer resolution below 100 nm; resolution is limited by the proximity effect; EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography.
lithography  process used to transfer pattern from the mask/reticle to the layer of resist deposited on the surface of the wafer; kind of lithography depends on the wavelength of radiation used to expose resist: photolithography (or optical lithography) uses UV radiation, X-ray lithography uses X-ray, e-beam lithography uses electron bean, ion beam lithography uses ion beam.
photomask  mask used in photolithography to block resist exposure to UV radiation in selected areas; consists of chrome opaque areas supported by high quality quartz plate transparent to UV radiation.
stepper  resist exposure tool commonly used in photolithograhy; works using projection printing; in contrast to full-field exposure tools stepper exposes through the remotely located reticle only part of the wafer and repeats the process ("step-and-repeat") as many time as needed to expose entire wafer.
X-ray lithography  lithography method using X-ray to expose the resist; due to shorter wavelength of X-ray radiation (0.4 - 4 nm)XRL allows higher resolution than photolithography which uses longer wavelength UV irradiation; XRL requires special mask and resists sensitive to X-rays.
enhancement techniques  term typically refers to techniques employed to extend use of photolithography into sub-100 nm regime; e.g., phase-shift masks, immersion photolithography, new photoresist formulations, etc.
Term (Index) Definition
X-ray lithography  lithography method using X-ray to expose the resist; due to shorter wavelength of X-ray radiation (0.4 - 4 nm)XRL allows higher resolution than photolithography which uses longer wavelength UV irradiation; XRL requires special mask and resists sensitive to X-rays.
electron beam (e-beam) lithography, EBL  lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist; no mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam; pattern transfer resolution below 100 nm; resolution is limited by the proximity effect; EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography.
photolithography, optical lithography  pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing; using extremely short wavelength UV (extreme UV; wavelenghts below 200 nm), projection printing (steppers), phase shift masks, and adequate resist technology photolithography is capable of resolution below 100 nm.
X-ray mask  mask used in X-ray lithography; uses gold as an opaque material; gold pattern (defined using e-beam lithography) is supported by a thin membrane made out of material transparent to X-rays of given wavelength, e.g. Si3N4, SiC and others.
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Created and operated by J. Ruzyllo. Copyright J. Ruzyllo 2001-2016. All rights reserved.

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