Semiconductor Glossary, Developed Semi OneSource.
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With over 2000 terms defined and explained, Semiconductor Glossary is the most complete reference in the field of semiconductors on the market today.












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Term (Index) Definition
junction  in semiconductor materials and devices region in which two materials featuring distinctly different electrical properties are in contact; e.g. p-n junction and metal-semiconductor junction (contact).
junction depth  depth (measured from the surface)of the plane in p-n junction at which concentration of acceptors is equal to the concentration of donors.
junction, p-n  n-type and p-type semiconductors are brought into contact in order to create a potential barrier; height ofthe potential barrier is controlled by the voltage applied between p- and n-type regions; homojunctions n- and p-type regions are formed in the same semiconductor typically by locally changing its doping from p to n, or vice versa ; in heterojunctions n- and p-type regions are made out of different semiconductors.
Term (Index) Definition
alloyed junction  formation of an alloy of metal (acting as dopant) and semiconductor for the purpose of p-n junction formation; e.g. alloy of indium with n-type Si will form a p-n junction; technique used before junction formation by diffusion was developed.
diffused junction  formation of a p-n junction by diffusion of dopant atoms into semiconductor; formation of p-n junction by diffusion allows superior to earlier technology of alloyed junction control over junction geometry.
Term (Index) Definition
diffused junction  formation of a p-n junction by diffusion of dopant atoms into semiconductor; formation of p-n junction by diffusion allows superior to earlier technology of alloyed junction control over junction geometry.
Term (Index) Definition
graded junction  composition of the layer located at the junction between two materials featuring different lattice constants is gradually modified to accomodate this changes; also a p-n junction in which dopant concentrataion is gradually varied from one region to another.
p-n junction  p-type and n-type semiconductors are brought to contact in order to create a potential barrier; height of the potential barrier is controlled by the voltage applied between p- and n-type regions; in homojunctions p- and n-type regions are formed in the same semiconductor typically by locally changing its doping from p to n, or vice versa; in heterojunctions p- and n-type regions are made out of different semicodnuctors.
Term (Index) Definition
junction depth  depth (measured from the surface)of the plane in p-n junction at which concentration of acceptors is equal to the concentration of donors.
doping  introduction of dopant into semiconductor for the purpose of altering its electrical properties; allows control of resistivity/conductivity of semiconductor by several orders of magnitude; also used to convert p-type material into n-type material and vice versa.
metallurgical junction  plane in the p-n junction at which concentration of acceptors is the same as concentration of donors.
metallurgical junction  term refers to p-n junction; interface between the n-doped and p-doped regions in the junction, or the plane in which ND = NA.
Term (Index) Definition
junction, p-n  n-type and p-type semiconductors are brought into contact in order to create a potential barrier; height ofthe potential barrier is controlled by the voltage applied between p- and n-type regions; homojunctions n- and p-type regions are formed in the same semiconductor typically by locally changing its doping from p to n, or vice versa ; in heterojunctions n- and p-type regions are made out of different semiconductors.
Term (Index) Definition
low-high, l-h, junction  junction in which potential barrier is formed not by contacting semiconductors of opposing conductivity type (n and p), but by bringing to contact heavily doped and lightly doped material of the same conductorvity type.
junction, p-n  n-type and p-type semiconductors are brought into contact in order to create a potential barrier; height ofthe potential barrier is controlled by the voltage applied between p- and n-type regions; homojunctions n- and p-type regions are formed in the same semiconductor typically by locally changing its doping from p to n, or vice versa ; in heterojunctions n- and p-type regions are made out of different semiconductors.
Term (Index) Definition
metallurgical junction  term refers to p-n junction; interface between the n-doped and p-doped regions in the junction, or the plane in which ND = NA.
Term (Index) Definition
metallurgical junction  plane in the p-n junction at which concentration of acceptors is the same as concentration of donors.
Term (Index) Definition
p-i-n junction, PIN  semiconductor structure comprising of p-and n-type materials with an intrinsic material in between; addition of intrinsic layer changes properties of p-n junction.
Term (Index) Definition
p-n junction  p-type and n-type semiconductors are brought to contact in order to create a potential barrier; height of the potential barrier is controlled by the voltage applied between p- and n-type regions; in homojunctions p- and n-type regions are formed in the same semiconductor typically by locally changing its doping from p to n, or vice versa; in heterojunctions p- and n-type regions are made out of different semicodnuctors.
potential barrier  increased potential at the junction between two materials featuring different work function; e.g. p-type and n-type semiconductor (p-n junction) or metal-semiconductor contact (Schottky diode); there is an electric field present in the barrier region; the width of the potential barrier depends on the semiconductor doping; the height of potential barrier changes with applied bias voltage (reverse bias - high potential barrier, forward bias - low potential barrier) which makes junction to display diode-like current-voltage characteristics.
Term (Index) Definition
p-n junction isolation  isolation scheme used in bipolar ICs; n-type "island" in which n-p-n transistor is formed is surrounded by p-type material; reverse biased p-n junction formed provides isolation.
LOCOS  Local Oxidation of Silicon; isolation scheme commonly used in MOS/CMOS silicon technology; thick (in the range of 500 nm) pad of thermally grown SiO2 separates adjacent devices (e.g. PMOS and NMOS transistor in CMOS structure); local oxidation is accomplished by using silicon nitride, Si3N4, to prevent oxidation of Si in selected areas, hence, "local" oxidation; prior to SiO2 pad formation silicon in between Si3N4 covered regions is implanted to form "channel stop"; Si3N4 mask is etched off following thermal oxidation and MOSFETs are ten formed in the open spaces.
STI  Shallow Trench Isolation.
Term (Index) Definition
shallow junction  term typically refers to a depth of the source and drain regions in advanced CMOS; scaling rules require continued reduction of the junction depth; can be as shallow as 10 nm.
scaling rules  design rules which must be followed while scaling down geometry of integrated devices and interconnect lines; arbitrary reduction of key geometries, e.g. channel length in MOSFETs, may results in dysfunctional devices, e.g. short-channel effects in MOSFET.
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Information in this glossary is provided at the author's discretion. Any liability based on, or related to the contents of this glossary is disclaimed.