Semiconductor Glossary, Developed Semi OneSource.
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Term (Index) Definition
ion  ionized atom, i.e. atom deprived of at least one of its electrons to become positively charged or atom acquiring additional electron(s) to become negatively charged.
ion multicharged, MCI  an ion featuring ion charge q>1; e.g. Ar8+; high power, very high frequency generators are needed to ionize gas to ion charge >1; decelerated multicharged ions feature potential energy orders of magnitude higher than their kinetic energy; capable of interacting with solid surfaces at ultra-low velocities; in contrast to non-selective interactions of single charge ions the multicharged ions interact differently with insulator and conductors

Reference: X-Ion
single charge ion  atom ionized to a single charge level, i.e. atom deprived of one electron only; e.g. Ar1+.
Term (Index) Definition
heavily charged ion, HCI  same as multicharged ion

Reference: XionTec
ion multicharged, MCI  an ion featuring ion charge q>1; e.g. Ar8+; high power, very high frequency generators are needed to ionize gas to ion charge >1; decelerated multicharged ions feature potential energy orders of magnitude higher than their kinetic energy; capable of interacting with solid surfaces at ultra-low velocities; in contrast to non-selective interactions of single charge ions the multicharged ions interact differently with insulator and conductors

Reference: X-Ion
Term (Index) Definition
ion beam  geometrically confined and accelerated by electrostatic forces stream of ions directed toward desired target.
ion sputtering, milling  etching process; process in which high energy ions impinging on the surface of the solid cause ejection ("sputtering") of the host atoms; highly anisotropic and non-selective etching.
Term (Index) Definition
ion beam lithography, IBL  lithography technique in which resist is exposed by accelerated ions; due to the limited scattering of ions in the resist IBL may offer higher resolution than e-beam lithography.
Term (Index) Definition
ion implantation  ions accelerated toward solid surface penetrate solid up to certain depth (see "projected range") determined by ion energy; used to introduce dopants, to form buried layers and to modify solid surfaces; concentration of implanted dopant atoms depends on ion dose; i.i. is the most common technique of dopant introduction in advanced semiconductor manufacturing.

Reference: See ion implantation animation
doping  introduction of dopant into semiconductor for the purpose of altering its electrical properties; allows control of resistivity/conductivity of semiconductor by several orders of magnitude; also used to convert p-type material into n-type material and vice versa.
dose  typically understood as implantation dose; number of ions crossing one cm2 of the surface of the implanted solid; controlled by ion beam current and implantation time.
implantation energy  kinetic energy of implanted ions established through acceleration; determines depth of solid penetration by the ions, and hence, depth of junction formed; quantitatively expressed by projected range Rp.
implantation damage  during ion implantation accelerated ions collide with atoms in the target material and displace them from their original lattice sites; after implantation crystallographic order of the implanted material is being restored by a brief anneal (typically RTP) at the temperature of 800 oC or higher.
projected range  term used in ion implantation terminology; p.r. is a distance from the surface of implanted material at which implanted ions reach maximum concentration (concentration peak).
Term (Index) Definition
ion milling  etching process; process in which high energy ions impinging on the surface of the solid cause ejection (sputtering) of the host atoms; highly anisotropic and non-selective etching.
etching, etch  subtractive process in the course of which a solid is either dissolved in liquid chemicals (wet etching) or converted into gaseous compound (dry etching); one among key processes in semiconductor manufacturing.
physical etching  sputter etching; process of etching through physical interactions (momentum transfer)between accelerated chemically inert ions (e.g. Ar+)and etched solid; anisotropic, non-selective.
Term (Index) Definition
ion multicharged, MCI  an ion featuring ion charge q>1; e.g. Ar8+; high power, very high frequency generators are needed to ionize gas to ion charge >1; decelerated multicharged ions feature potential energy orders of magnitude higher than their kinetic energy; capable of interacting with solid surfaces at ultra-low velocities; in contrast to non-selective interactions of single charge ions the multicharged ions interact differently with insulator and conductors

Reference: X-Ion
Term (Index) Definition
Ion Projection Lithography, IPL  modification of ion-beam lithography in the direction of increased process throughput; elimination of time consumimg scanning.
ion beam lithography, IBL  lithography technique in which resist is exposed by accelerated ions; due to the limited scattering of ions in the resist IBL may offer higher resolution than e-beam lithography.
Term (Index) Definition
ion reflection  incident ion is reflected from the solid surface instead of being implanted or causing sputtering of the bombarded solid.
Term (Index) Definition
ion single charge  an ion featuring ion charge q=1; e.g. Ar1+; in conventional discharge in gas single charge ions dominate population of ions; s.c.i. features very low potential energy and needs to acquire high kinetic energy through acceleration to perform useful function (e.g. sputtering).
Term (Index) Definition
ion sputtering, milling  etching process; process in which high energy ions impinging on the surface of the solid cause ejection ("sputtering") of the host atoms; highly anisotropic and non-selective etching.
etch anisotropy  etching is taking place preferentially in one direction; key requirement in definition of very fine geometrical features.
Term (Index) Definition
Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation, PIII  very shallow implantation taking place when the wafer is "immersed" in plasma containing dopant ions; ions are not accelerated toward the substrate, and hence, penetration depth is very shallow; can be used to form ultra-shallow junctions.
doping  introduction of dopant into semiconductor for the purpose of altering its electrical properties; allows control of resistivity/conductivity of semiconductor by several orders of magnitude; also used to convert p-type material into n-type material and vice versa.
ion implantation  ions accelerated toward solid surface penetrate solid up to certain depth (see "projected range") determined by ion energy; used to introduce dopants, to form buried layers and to modify solid surfaces; concentration of implanted dopant atoms depends on ion dose; i.i. is the most common technique of dopant introduction in advanced semiconductor manufacturing.

Reference: See ion implantation animation
plasma  ionized gas, specifically a self-contained part of the electrical discharge in gases featuring equal concentration of ions and electrons; plasma contains electrically active species, but as a whole is electrically neutral; ions can be extracted from plasma to play variety of important functions in semiconductor processing.
Term (Index) Definition
Reactive Ion Etching, RIE  variation of plasma etching in which during etching semiconductor wafer is placed on the RF powered electrode; wafer takes on potential which accelerates etching species extracted from plasma toward the etched surface; chemical etching reaction is preferentially taking place in the direction normal to the surface, i.e. etching is more anisotropic than in plasma etching but is less selective; leaves etched surface damaged; the most common etching mode in semiconductor manufacturing.
Term (Index) Definition
single charge ion  atom ionized to a single charge level, i.e. atom deprived of one electron only; e.g. Ar1+.
ion multicharged, MCI  an ion featuring ion charge q>1; e.g. Ar8+; high power, very high frequency generators are needed to ionize gas to ion charge >1; decelerated multicharged ions feature potential energy orders of magnitude higher than their kinetic energy; capable of interacting with solid surfaces at ultra-low velocities; in contrast to non-selective interactions of single charge ions the multicharged ions interact differently with insulator and conductors

Reference: X-Ion
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