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Term (Index) Definition
electron beam (e-beam) lithography, EBL  lithography technique which uses focused beam of electrons to expose the resist; no mask is used as pattern is "written" directly into the resist by very fast scanning of electron beam; pattern transfer resolution below 100 nm; resolution is limited by the proximity effect; EBL is commonly used to manufacture high resolution masks for photolithography and X-ray lithography.
lithography  process used to transfer pattern from the mask/reticle to the layer of resist deposited on the surface of the wafer; kind of lithography depends on the wavelength of radiation used to expose resist: photolithography (or optical lithography) uses UV radiation, X-ray lithography uses X-ray, e-beam lithography uses electron bean, ion beam lithography uses ion beam.
photolithography, optical lithography  pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing; using extremely short wavelength UV (extreme UV; wavelenghts below 200 nm), projection printing (steppers), phase shift masks, and adequate resist technology photolithography is capable of resolution below 100 nm.
proximity effect  deleterious effect in e-beam lithography; scattering of electrons in irradiated resist; p.e. is responsible for the size of the exposed resist area being larger than the diameter of the incident electron beam; limits resolution of e-beam lithography.
raster scan  scanning mode in which beam is moving back and forth over the entire substrate; beam is turned on over designated area and then turned off until it will arrive at the next designated area.
variable shape beam  scanning mode in e-beam lithography in which shape of the beam is changing depending on the geometry of exposed area.
vector scan  scanning mode in which beam is scanning selected areas only; after scanning of selected area is completed beam is turned off and moved to another area to be scanned.
X-ray lithography  lithography method using X-ray to expose the resist; due to shorter wavelength of X-ray radiation (0.4 - 4 nm)XRL allows higher resolution than photolithography which uses longer wavelength UV irradiation; XRL requires special mask and resists sensitive to X-rays.
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