Semiconductor Glossary, Developed Semi OneSource.
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With over 2000 terms defined and explained, Semiconductor Glossary is the most complete reference in the field of semiconductors on the market today.












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Term (Index) Definition
dopant  element introduced into semiconductor to establish either p- type (acceptors) or n- type (donors) conductivity; common dopants in silicon: p-type, boron, B; n-type phosphorous, P, arsenic, As ,antimony, Sb.
donor  element introduced to semiconductor to generate free electron (by "donating" electron to semiconductor); must have one more valance electron than semiconductor; common donors in Si: P, As, Sb and in GaAs: S, Se, Sn, Si, and C.
doping  introduction of dopant into semiconductor for the purpose of altering its electrical properties; allows control of resistivity/conductivity of semiconductor by several orders of magnitude; also used to convert p-type material into n-type material and vice versa.
acceptor  element introduced to semiconductor to generate free hole (by "accepting" electron from semiconductor atom and "releasing" hole at the same time); acceptor atom must have one valence electron less than host semiconductor; boron (B) is the most common acceptor in silicon technology; alternatives include indium and gallium (gallium features high diffusivity in SiO2, and hence, oxide cannot be used as mask during Ga diffusion)
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Term (Index) Definition
amphoteric dopant  element which can act either as a donor or an acceptor in a given semiconductor; e.g. Si is an amphoteric dopant of GaAs where it acts as a donor on a Ga site or as an acceptor on an As site.
donor  element introduced to semiconductor to generate free electron (by "donating" electron to semiconductor); must have one more valance electron than semiconductor; common donors in Si: P, As, Sb and in GaAs: S, Se, Sn, Si, and C.
dopant  element introduced into semiconductor to establish either p- type (acceptors) or n- type (donors) conductivity; common dopants in silicon: p-type, boron, B; n-type phosphorous, P, arsenic, As ,antimony, Sb.
acceptor  element introduced to semiconductor to generate free hole (by "accepting" electron from semiconductor atom and "releasing" hole at the same time); acceptor atom must have one valence electron less than host semiconductor; boron (B) is the most common acceptor in silicon technology; alternatives include indium and gallium (gallium features high diffusivity in SiO2, and hence, oxide cannot be used as mask during Ga diffusion)
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Term (Index) Definition
dopant activation  thermal treatment causing release of a free electron (or hole) after dopant has been implanted in semiconductor.
ionization energy  energy needed to ionize dopant atom in semiconductor, i.e. to have dopant atom to release one free electron (donor) or one free hole (acceptor).
Term (Index) Definition
dopant de-activation  dopant atom becomes inactive, i.e. is unable to release free charge carrier, if bonded with alien element in semiconductor; most common example in silicon: de-activation of p-type dopant boron, B, by hydrogen.
Term (Index) Definition
dopant redistribution  term typically refers to possible undesired changes in dopant profile during high-temeperature treatments applied, for various reasons, after dopant atoms have been introduced; in the case dopant redistribution is not desired only low thermal budget thermal treatments should be used.
RTA  Rapid Thermal Annealing; annealing process carried out for a very short time; typically performed for the purpose of improving properties of materials and/or device structures.
thermal budget  term defines total amount of thermal energy transferred to the wafer during the given elevated temperature operation; proportional to temperature and duration of the process; low thermal budget is desired in ultra-small IC manufacturing to prevent dopant redistribution; low thermal budget is possible even at a very high temperature if time of the process is very short (can be as short as few seconds); RTP.
limited-source diffusion  also known as drive-in; concentration of diffusant (dopant) on the surface decreases during the diffusion process, i.e. while some dopant atoms diffuse into the substrate no new dopant atoms are supplied to the surface of the wafer.
Term (Index) Definition
surface dopant concentration  dopant concentration in the region immediately adjacent to the surface of doped semiconductor; may be different the dopant concentration in the bulk of semiconductor; needs to be monitored particularly in the case of epitaxial layers.
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