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Term (Index) Definition
diffusion  in general, motion of species in solids in the direction of concentration gradient; (i)diffusion of free charge carriers in semiconductor; (ii) diffusion of dopant atoms in semiconductor at elevated temperature; (iii) diffusion - common name of the high temperature process during which dopant atoms are introduced into semiconductor by diffusion.
drive in  high temperature (>800 oC) operation performed on semiconductor wafer in an inert ambient; causes motion of dopant atoms in semiconductor in the direction of concentration gradient (diffusion); used to drive dopant atoms deeper into semiconductor.
Fick's law, Fick  describe diffusion in solids; 1st and 2nd Fick's law; 1st Fick's law describes motion by diffusion of an element in the solid in the direction of the concentration gradient; 2nd Fick's law determines changes of concentration gradient in the course of diffusion (function of time and diffusion coefficient).
predeposition  semiconductor doping by diffusion; process of thermal oxidation of silicon in the ambient containing dopant atoms; heavily doped oxide formed is acting as a source of dopant during the diffusion.
Term (Index) Definition
constant-source diffusion  also know as unlimited-source diffusion; also as predeposition; concentration of diffusant (dopant) on the surface of the wafer remains constant during the diffusion process, i.e. while some dopant atoms diffuse into the substrate additional dopant atoms are continuously supplied to the surface of the wafer.
predeposition  semiconductor doping by diffusion; process of thermal oxidation of silicon in the ambient containing dopant atoms; heavily doped oxide formed is acting as a source of dopant during the diffusion.
limited-source diffusion  also known as drive-in; concentration of diffusant (dopant) on the surface decreases during the diffusion process, i.e. while some dopant atoms diffuse into the substrate no new dopant atoms are supplied to the surface of the wafer.
unlimited source diffusion  see predeposition.
Term (Index) Definition
diffusion coefficient, D  determines rate with which element moves in a given solid by diffusion; depends strongly on temperature; expressed in cm2/sec; varies between elements by orders of magnitude, e.g. in the case of diffusion in silicon diffusion coefficient for gold, Au, is in the range of 10-3 cm2/sec (fast diffusant) while for Sb is in the range of 10-17 cm2/sec.
diffusion  in general, motion of species in solids in the direction of concentration gradient; (i)diffusion of free charge carriers in semiconductor; (ii) diffusion of dopant atoms in semiconductor at elevated temperature; (iii) diffusion - common name of the high temperature process during which dopant atoms are introduced into semiconductor by diffusion.
diffusion source  source of dopant atoms used in semiconductor doping processes; gas, liquid, and solid sources are available.
Term (Index) Definition
diffusion current  motion of charge carriers in semiconductor by diffusion, i.e. from the region of high carrier concentration to the region of low carrier concentration.
drift current  current in semiconductor caused by electric field.
Term (Index) Definition
diffusion length  term applies to the electron transport by diffusion; the distance over which concentration of injected free charge carriers injected into semiconductor falls to 1/e of its original value.
diffusion length  term applies to the electron transport by diffusion; the distance over which concentration of injected free charge carriers injected into semiconductor falls to 1/e of its original value.
minority carriers  one of two carrier types (electrons of holes)whose equilibrium concentration is lower than that of the other type; holes in n-type semiconductors, electrons in p-type semiconductors.
Term (Index) Definition
diffusion pump  high vacuum pump (from 10-3 torr to 10-7 torr) featuring relatively high pumping speed; in the past the most common high vacuum pump in semiconductor processing; with time eliminated from mainstream applications because of the oil vapor backstreaming into the vacuum system.
rough, roughing, pump  vacuum pump designed to reduced pressure from atmospheric to militorr range.
Term (Index) Definition
diffusion source  source of dopant atoms used in semiconductor doping processes; gas, liquid, and solid sources are available.
diborane, B2H6  gaseous compound commonly used in silicon manufacturing as a source of boron (B, p-type dopant in Si).
phosphine, PH3  gaseous compound (toxic) commonly used in silicon manufacturing as a source of phosphorus (P, n-type dopant in Si).
Term (Index) Definition
interstitial diffusion  diffusion mechanism in which diffusant moves in between host atoms in the lattice; low activation energy process; interstitial diffusants (e.g. gold in silicon) feature high diffusion coefficient.
diffusion coefficient, D  determines rate with which element moves in a given solid by diffusion; depends strongly on temperature; expressed in cm2/sec; varies between elements by orders of magnitude, e.g. in the case of diffusion in silicon diffusion coefficient for gold, Au, is in the range of 10-3 cm2/sec (fast diffusant) while for Sb is in the range of 10-17 cm2/sec.
substitutional diffusion  diffusion mechanism in which diffusant substitutes for the host atoms by displacing them from their lattice sites; high activation energy process; substitutional diffusants (e.g. all p- and n-type dopants in silicon) feature low diffusion coefficient.
Term (Index) Definition
lateral diffusion  diffusion of dopant atoms in the direction parallel to the surface of semiconductor; in general, undesired in semiconductor device manufacturing as it causes lateral distortion of the device geometry.
diffusion  in general, motion of species in solids in the direction of concentration gradient; (i)diffusion of free charge carriers in semiconductor; (ii) diffusion of dopant atoms in semiconductor at elevated temperature; (iii) diffusion - common name of the high temperature process during which dopant atoms are introduced into semiconductor by diffusion.
vertical diffusion  diffusion in solids in which diffusing species are moving in a direction normal to the wafer surface.
Term (Index) Definition
limited-source diffusion  also known as drive-in; concentration of diffusant (dopant) on the surface decreases during the diffusion process, i.e. while some dopant atoms diffuse into the substrate no new dopant atoms are supplied to the surface of the wafer.
drive in  high temperature (>800 oC) operation performed on semiconductor wafer in an inert ambient; causes motion of dopant atoms in semiconductor in the direction of concentration gradient (diffusion); used to drive dopant atoms deeper into semiconductor.
unlimited source diffusion  see predeposition.
Term (Index) Definition
substitutional diffusion  diffusion mechanism in which diffusant substitutes for the host atoms by displacing them from their lattice sites; high activation energy process; substitutional diffusants (e.g. all p- and n-type dopants in silicon) feature low diffusion coefficient.
diffusant  specie moving in the solid by diffusion
diffusion  in general, motion of species in solids in the direction of concentration gradient; (i)diffusion of free charge carriers in semiconductor; (ii) diffusion of dopant atoms in semiconductor at elevated temperature; (iii) diffusion - common name of the high temperature process during which dopant atoms are introduced into semiconductor by diffusion.
interstitial diffusion  diffusion mechanism in which diffusant moves in between host atoms in the lattice; low activation energy process; interstitial diffusants (e.g. gold in silicon) feature high diffusion coefficient.
Term (Index) Definition
transient enhanced diffusion, TED  transient effect observed during post-implantation annealing; due to the crystal damage resulting from implantation the diffusion coefficient of implanted atoms increases temporarily (i.e. until damage is annealed out)up to 10 times.
Term (Index) Definition
unlimited source diffusion  see predeposition.
predeposition  semiconductor doping by diffusion; process of thermal oxidation of silicon in the ambient containing dopant atoms; heavily doped oxide formed is acting as a source of dopant during the diffusion.
limited-source diffusion  also known as drive-in; concentration of diffusant (dopant) on the surface decreases during the diffusion process, i.e. while some dopant atoms diffuse into the substrate no new dopant atoms are supplied to the surface of the wafer.
Term (Index) Definition
vertical diffusion  diffusion in solids in which diffusing species are moving in a direction normal to the wafer surface.
diffusion  in general, motion of species in solids in the direction of concentration gradient; (i)diffusion of free charge carriers in semiconductor; (ii) diffusion of dopant atoms in semiconductor at elevated temperature; (iii) diffusion - common name of the high temperature process during which dopant atoms are introduced into semiconductor by diffusion.
lateral diffusion  diffusion of dopant atoms in the direction parallel to the surface of semiconductor; in general, undesired in semiconductor device manufacturing as it causes lateral distortion of the device geometry.
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