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Term (Index) Definition
Czochralski crystal growth, CZ  process of obtaining single-crystal solids; the most common method for obtaining large diameter semiconductor wafers (e.g. 300 mm Si wafers); single crystal material is pulled out of the melt in which single-crystal seed is immersed and then slowly withdrawn; desired conductivity type and doping level is accomplished by adding dopants to the melt.
float-zone crystal growth, FZ  method used to form single crystal semiconductor substrates; alternative to CZ crystal growth process; polycrystalline material (typically in the form of a circular rod) is converted into single-crystal by zone heating (zone melting) starting at the plane where single crystal seed is contacting polycrystalline material; used to make Si wafers; results in very high purity (i.e. very high resistivity) single crystal Si; does not allow as large Si wafers as CZ does (200 mm and 300 mm); radial distribution of dopant in FZ wafer not as uniform as in CZ wafer; wafers used in high-end Si microelectronics are almost uniquely CZ grown.
ingot  circular in shape piece of single-crystal semiconductor material typically resulting from the Czochralski crystal growth process; ingot is shaped and then sliced, using high-precision diamond saw, into wafers used to manufacture semiconductor devices.
polishing  process applied to either reduce roughness of the wafer surface or to remove excess material from the surface; typically mechanical-chemical process using chemically reactive slurry.
slicing  term refers to the process of cutting of the single-crystal semiconductor into wafers; high precision diamond blades are used.
Bridgman growth  A method used to grow single-crystal semiconductors typically III-V, e.g. GaAs; uses multi-zone furnace in which Ga and As are contained in the ampule and in contact with GaAs seed; the GaAs melt is passed from higher to lower temperature zone; conceptually similar to float-zone (FZ) crystal growth method.
LEC  Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski growth.
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